PCB Fabrication

Surface Finishes

by:A-TECH      2020-10-26

A last PCB description document needs to be attached to the package deal, which incorporates the best option for ending methodology of the designed PCB. ENEPIG is a fairly new methodology of finishing, based mostly on ENIG, which overcomes the black pad concern by including a 3rd layer of palladium . Thinner circuits are dominated extra by conductor losses than other losses and, for every plated finish evaluated, it added to the PCB’s conductor losses. This distinction may be seen extra clearly when RF frequencies are introduced. At low RF frequencies, current will sometimes move by way of the copper monitor of a PCB surface very effectively.


Once once more, I degaussed it, confirmed the magnetism was removed, and re-magnetized it to substantiate that the behavior I was seeing was real. A PCB with an ENIG finish with gold used to guard the nickel throughout lengthy-time period storage. Your final and ultimate line of defense towards tin whiskers is to consider using a plating finish in your PCB that isn’t pure tin. Each has their benefits and disadvantages to consider, let’s contemplate the highest three at your disposal. All the above-mentioned parameters make ENEPIG probably the most suitable floor end in the PCB trade.


Sierra Circuits provides the option for ENEPIG finish on all of its products. While dealing with high-frequency circuits, nickel might intervene and retard excessive-frequency alerts. With the palladium layer on top of nickel, it could negate the affect of nickel on excessive-frequency indicators.


Moreover, part of the cation encounters the cathodic ion in the neighborhood of the anode plate and causes an accumulation of corrosion merchandise (Equation ) as a result of much sooner migration rate of OH−. In addition, the opposite a part of Cu2+ was lowered as Cu shaped, and stretched toward the cathode . However, as the amount of Cu2+ decreased, at that moment, the Cu dendrite turned into faint filamentary morphology . Figure 1 exhibits the floor topographies of PCBs under experimental conditions for 24 h.


Figure 1 means that relative slight ECM corrosion occurred on PCB-Cu under low humidity (75% RH). The anode plate was smooth without any obvious modifications, whereas the color of the cathode plate clearly turned black. Moreover, as RH increased, the colour of the cathode plate continuously deepened, and the quantity of salt enrichment accumulated on some localized areas of the PCB-Cu increased. Moreover, beneath 95% RH, the anode plate progressively turned black and tough, inflicting a sure degree of corrosion. Especially, the severely corrosion occurred at the anode plate edge, the place there have been a large number of green corrosion merchandise that had been presumably “patina”.


Overall, PCB-Cu has a poor corrosion resistance and dissolved rapidly beneath the synergy results of electrolyte ions and a bias voltage. When the RH is low, the resistance of the ion migration is very nice due to the extraordinarily skinny electrolyte layer. The resistance of ion migration progressively decreases as relative humidity will increase. In the meantime, the cation (Cu2+) and cathodic ion (OH−, SO42−) migrate in the wrong way.


However, as the frequency increases, present tends to cross extra on the outer floor/pores and skin of the track, so the plating and its conductive loss turns into of greater significance. So I examined a PCB with an immersion silver plating, however it also exhibited the same habits.


I seen that the MLX90393 analysis board uses a gold end of some sort, as does the HMC5883L breakout board from Adafruit, although I'm unsure if either finish is ENIG. Have they done the calculations and/or tests to show that this does not affect the measurements? I don't suppose I'm going to take any chances, though - it is HASL for the sensor board. When a design is completed, the layer stack is outlined and the ODB++ information are generated.


As the substrate becomes less accessible, the immersion reaction will diminish, and the autocatalytic reaction will dominate. The electrons needed to reduce the gold ions to steel are equipped by a reducing agent component within the bathtub. Displacement reaction where the substrate supplies the electrons needed to cut back the ionic gold to steel. Immersion reaction is limited in deposit thickness capability as the substrate turns into less available.


reveals a 5000X SEM micrograph of a corroded Ni floor after gold stripping. An irregular topography with distinct crevices between the domains is the place corrosion initiates and should cause black pad.

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